Licensing Information

One major function of the copyright system is to guarantee right holders adequate recompense for the use of their works. By so doing authors and publishers are encouraged to continue in the business of writing and publishing thereby contributing to the educational, social and cultural development of a people. In the long run, everyone benefits from a well-run copyright system in which rights are respected.

“It is only fair that rightsholders also need to be able to obtain remuneration when their published works are copied (as opposed to sold) typically in the form of multiple copies for classroom use. This may be done through licensing activities such as photocopying of portions of books (a chapter, for instance) and journals (typically an article) for use in schools, universities, private companies, and public and government sector institutions. As rightsholders would find it impractical to administer certain licensing operations themselves, national collective management organisations, such as RROs, do the work for them. Acting in accordance with local legislation and regulations, these intermediaries collect and distribute to rightsholders remuneration derived from these uses.

“One among several ways to compensate rightsholders for the reprographic reproduction of their works including for educational and professional use is through copyright levies, currently applied in a majority of the EU Member States. For copying by individuals for strictly private and personal use, individual licensing schemes are not always practical. Thus, where payment for copying for purely personal and private use by natural persons is required, the levy system is widely considered to be a fair and practicable remuneration mechanism for rightsholders.”

(IFRRO, Copyright levies and Reprography, p.6)